A scanty menstrual period is one in which the duration of flow is less than two days or the amount of blood flow is less than normal. Medically it is known as hypomenorrhoea.
Constitutional: In some women it may be normal to have less bleeding during menstrual periods. Less blood flow may be genetic and, if enquiries are made, it may be found that woman's mother and/or sister also have decreased blood flow during their periods. Pregnancy can normally occur with this type of decreased flow during the period .The incidence of infertility is the same as in women with a normal blood flow. Constitutional scanty menstruation perhaps best explained by assuming the presence of an unusual arrangement, or relative insensitivity, of the endometrial vascular apparatus.
Uterine: Scanty loss sometimes means that the bleeding surface is smaller than normal, and is occasionally seen when the endomaterial cavity has been reduced in size during myomectomy or other plastic operation on the uterus. However, it rarely indicates uterine hypoplasia because the presence of this condition in a uterus which is responsive to hormones betokens ovarian under activity, and this manifests itself by infrequent rather than scanty menstruation.
Hormonal: Scanty menses or periods can occur normally at the extremes of the reproductive life that is, just after puberty and just before menopause. This is because ovulation is irregular at this time, and the endomaterial lining fails to develop normally. But normal problems at other times can also cause scanty blood flow. Anovulation due to a low thyroid hormone level, high prolactin level, high insulin level, high androgen level and problems with other hormone can also cause scanty periods. Scanty menses can also occur after long-term use of oral contraceptive as a result of progressive endometrial atrophy.
Nervous and emotional: Psychogenic factors like stress due to exams, or excessive excitement about an upcoming event may cause hypomenorrhea. Such factors suppress the activity of those centers in the brain that stimulate ovaries during the ovarian cycle (to secrete hormone like estrogen and progesterone), and may result in low production of these hormones.
Other causes: Excessive exercise and crash dieting can cause scanty periods. One of the causes of hypomenorrhea is Asherman's syndrome (intra uterine adhesions), of which hypomenorrhea may be the only apparent sign.
1.Blood test- Tests for the level of hormones like FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormones, prolactin, insulin and androgen are important.
2.Ultrasound of lower abdomen.
3.MRI and D&C.
Unless a significant causal abnormality is found no treatment other than reassurance is necessary. Treatment is a per cause in case of significant causal abnormality.
Role of homoeopathy
Homeopathic remedies often bring relief. Menstrual problems that are chronic or severe are best addressed with the guidance of an experienced practitioner: a constitutional remedy can help to bring balance to a person's system on many levels.